Section-1 1. In the scientific method, a hypothesis _____. A. is a statement of fact B. makes a prediction that can be tested C. is usually proven to be correct

Section-1 1. In the scientific method, a hypothesis _____. A. is a statement of fact B. makes a prediction that can be tested C. is usually proven to be correct D. can only be tested once E. none of these 2. Which of the following can’t be considered an acceptable hypothesis?” A. Dark matter, (invisible matter which still has gravitational attraction), determines the orbits of stars in the the galaxy B. Mass increases with velocity C. Matter came into existence together with time D. The megagalaxies of the universe will become invisible to each other in time. E. all are acceptable hypotheses 3. A theory is an integrated explanation of numerous “proven”_____. A. facts B. laws C. controls D. hypotheses E. guesses 4. is the correct sequence of steps in the scientific method? I. State a problem II. Analyze and interpret data III. Develop a hypothesis IV. Share the results with other scientists V. Design and perform experiment to test the hypothesis A. I – II – III – IV – V B. III – I – V – II – IV C. V – IV – III – II – I D. I – III – V – II – IV E. V – II – I – III – IV 5. Ptolemy’s model sought to explain retrograde motion by _____. A. adding circles to epicycle orbits B. adding circles to elliptical orbits C. adding epicycles to elliptical orbits A. Moon, neutron star, white dwarf, galaxy B. galaxy, white dwarf, Moon,  neutron star, C. galaxy, planet, neutron star, white dwarf, D. galaxy, neutron star, Moon, white dwarf, A. lower densities B. higher densities C. thicker atmospheres D. higher masses A. proton-proton fusion of hydrogen B. the fusion of hydrogen and helium C. both of the above D. neither of the above A. The star must be in the upper part of the main sequence. B. The star must be very large. C. The star must be quite small. D. There must be an error in observation, because no star can have these properties. A. have higher percentages of hydrogen and helium B. more likely found in  the galactic halo C. give off more red light. D. all of the above A. it is much closer to the Sun B. it rotates more slowly and in a retrograde direction C. of the percentage of carbon dioxide in its thick atmosphere D. clouds of sulfuric acid in its atmosphere reflects sunlight back into space A. common revolution of  Venus’ orbit B. the rotation of Venus C. common age of Solar System objects A. Cometary nuclei B. Asteroids C. Terrestrial planets D. Jovian planets A. elliptical, more gas and dust, spiral, more B. irregular, more gas and dust, elliptical, more C. elliptical, more gas and dust, spiral, less D. spiral, less gas and dust, elliptical, more A. second law of motion B. first law of motion C. law of gravity D. third law of motion A. 1.4 x 10 years B. 1.4 x 10 years C. 1.4 x 10 years D. 1.4 x 10 years A. parsecs B. astronomical units C. light years D. solar diameters A. miles B. million light-years C. astronomical units D. parsecs A. light-years B. solar diameters C. light-hours D. light-seconds A. thousand B. billion C. million D. hundred A. mostly in a single spherical shell surrounding a void in space, presumed to have been caused by a vast explosion at the time of the Big Bang. B. uniformly throughout space. C. in groups and surfaces surrounding vast voids, much like the surfaces of giant bubbles. D. around a single point in space, the presumed location of the original Big Bang that created the Universe. A. is speeding up B. is slowing down C. has stopped D. is constant A. the time since the beginning of the universe B. the speed of light C. the increasing power of new telescopes D. both  A. and B. only A. high mass stars B. heavy element fusion C. supernovae D. all of the above A. The fact that Mars has satellites. B. The fact that Pluto’s orbit is very elliptical. C. The fact that the planets all revolve in the same direction in the same direction. D. None of these, they’re all accidents of history A. its continuous spectrum B. its absorption spectrum C. similar stars D. samples obtained from the star 28.  is the distance of a galaxy with a recession speed of 280,000 km/sec? (use H = 70 km/sec/Mp       C. A.  210,000 km/sec B.  4 Mpc C.  4,000 Mpc D.  140,000 km E.  7,000,000 km 29. A galaxy located at a distance D of 1 million light years away has an angular size A= 5 degree. is the approximate diameter of this galaxy? (use d = 2 π A D / 360). A. 58,500 pc B. 87,000 light years C. 1 million light years D. 360,000 light years E. 6 million light years A. Their pulsation period is related to their luminosity. B. Their luminosity is related to their mass. C. Their speed is related to the red shift of their spectral lines. D. They are very abundant in all galaxies. E. They are more likely to appear in the spiral arms of galaxies, and therefore clearly visible. 31. The distance of a faraway galaxy can be determined by: A. The parallax method B. Observation of Cepheid variable stars in that galaxy. C. Observation of quasars. D. Recessional velocity. E. The annual parallax. 32. is the “rotation curve” of a galaxy? A. It is a graph of the orbital velocities at various distances from the center of the galaxy. B. t is a graph of the speed at the center of the galaxy. C. It is the recession speed of galaxies at various distances from the Milky Way. 33.       In their search for dark matter, astronomers can exclude candidates whose presence is detectable Which of the following candidates can be ruled out? A. Black holes B. Neutrinos C. Hot or cold gas D. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPS). E. Dead white dwarfs 34. Which of the following statements about Quasars is not correct? A. Their spectra have the largest red-shifts observed. B. They are probably the most distant observable objects. C. They have abnormally high luminosities. D. Their cores are extremely large, probably several thousand light years across. E. Sometimes they appear in pairs, due to gravitational lenses formed by intervening galaxies. 35. observational evidence suggests that the centers of quasars are small, about a fraction of a light year? A. The fact that quasars emit long wavelength radiation B. Photographs of quasars C. They emit radiation over a very wide range of wavelengths. D. The intensity of their radiation fluctuates over periods of months. E. All of the choices are correct. 36. is the origin of synchrotron radiation in radio galaxies? A.  gh speed electrons spiraling around the magnetic field lines B. Supernova explosions C. Neutron stars at the center of the radio galaxy D. Hydrogen gas E. Radiation from a massive black hole at the center of the galaxy 37. is the origin of the lobes often observed on opposite sides of radio galaxies? A. Gas ejected from the core of the galaxy B. gh speed electrons colliding with gas surrounding the galaxy C. Hot planetary nebulas surrounding the galaxy D. Black holes orbiting the center E. Material pulled in by gravity 38. Astronomers speculate that most galaxies have a massive black hole at their center. could be the origin of the suspected black hole? A. First, a supernova explosion formed a black hole, which in time became more massive by accretion. B. The collision of galaxies C. The gravitational attraction drew in stars from the disk. D. The rapid rotation of the galaxy that compressed material to high densities. E. Dark matter at the galactic center 39. Which of the following provides evidence for the existence of dark matter? A. The orbital speeds of stars in galaxies are higher than what can be accounted for by the detectable mass in the galaxy. B. The orbital speeds of galaxies in clusters are higher than what can be accounted for by the detectable mass of the cluster. C. The ability of rich galaxy clusters to prevent their hot gases from expanding. D. All of the choices are correct. E. Only the orbital speeds of galaxies in clusters are higher than what can be accounted for by the detectable mass of the cluster and the ability of rich galaxy clusters to prevent their hot gases from expanding provide evidence. 40. is the most likely outcome after the collision between two spiral galaxies? A. The destruction of most of their stars B. Enhanced formation of new stars C. Formation of a larger galaxy D. All of the choices are correct. E. Only enhanced formation of new stars and formation of a larger galaxy are correct. Section-2 : you must show your work and explain your reasoning in detail. 1. Comet Halley has an orbital period of 75 years and when it enters the inner Solar System, it passes within a few AU of the Sun. A.  Determine the average distance of Comet Halley in AU. B.  Right now, Comet Halley is just about past the orbit of Neptune, which has an average distance from the sun of about 30 AU. Explain how this is possible given the average distance you found from its orbital period. 2. HIPPARCOS (an acronym for HIgh Precision PARallax COllecting Satellite was a scientific mission of the European Space Agency (ES       A., launched in 1989 and operated between 1989 and 1993. It was the first space experiment devoted to astrometry, the accurate measurement of star positions, distances from us, parallaxes, and proper motions. A.  If the measured parallax shift of star A was 0.1 arcsecs and the parallax shift of star B was 0.05 arcsecs, which star was farther away from the Earth, why? B.  is the distance of the farthest star in parsecs? C.  is the distance of the farthest star in light-years? 3. There are two optical telescopes operating at the exact same frequency. The first telescope is a 10 m telescope that is planned to be located at the L2 Lagrangian point 1.5 million kilometers past the orbit of the Earth. The second telescope is a 2 m telescope that is planned to be placed on the far side of the moon (average distance to the moon is 380,000 km from the Earth.. A.  Which of the two telescopes will have the greater light gathering power (10 m or 2 m)? B. Explain your answer to part (A). If the 10m telescope were placed on the Earth on top of Mauna Kea in Hawaii at 14000 feet instead of at L2, which telescope NOW has the greater light gathering power, by what factor C.. The 10 m telescope has a _____ (greater/smaller. light gathering power ) D.. by a factor of _____ times. E.  Compare your answers to parts C. and  D. to your answer to part   A.. Explain any differences. 4. There was a great debate concerning the value of the Hubble constant. (NOTE: The presently accepted value of the Hubble constant is 72 km/s/Mpc as listed in your formula sheet.. One party believed the Hubble constant (Ho. was closer to 50 km/s/Mpc and the other party believed the Hubble constant was closer to 100 km/s/Mp       C. Assuming you measure a recessional velocity of a galaxy of 10,000 km/s, what is the distance to that galaxy given the two different Hubble constants A.  Distance to galaxy using 100 km/s/Mpc = _____ Mpc B.  Distance to galaxy using 50 km/s/Mpc = _____ Mpc C.  How do the different Hubble constants affect the calculated age of the universe? 5. If you triple the distance between two celestial objects, how does the resultant gravitational force between the two objects compare to the original force? (for example, 2 times, 10 times, 100 times?. A.. The force is _____ times    B. _____ (greater/weaker).. 6. Two stars have the same radius but have very different temperatures. The red star has a surface temperature of 3000 K and the blue star has a surface temperature of 15,000 K. By what factor is the blue star more (or less. luminous compared to the red star? (for example, 2 times, 10 times, 100 times?. A. The blue star is _____ times    B.   _____ (more/less) luminous. Section: Section-3 follows. 1. Below are HR diagrams taken of 4 star clusters. Identify the ages of the star cluster from YOUNGEST to OLDEST and describe in detail how you can determine the relative age of each cluster. Use the HR diagram provided at the end of this exam as a guide in your decision making process. 2. Assume that the four planets listed in the table below are all terrestrial-type worlds, they formed at the same time, they orbit the same star, and each has nearly circular orbits. Which of the four planets should show the most seasonal variations over its orbit? Explain your reasoning. Which of the four planets is the most likely still to be geologically active? Explain your reasoning. Planet   Tilt (Deg)  Radius (km)     Density (g/cm3)     Average Distance from Star (AU. A              1.0         1,111                  5.90                                 1.1 B            23.5         4,051                 4.25                                  2.0 C            47.0        6,950                  4.52                                  3.5 D             0.0         3,397                  3.10                                  5.4 3. Below are images of two moons in the outer solar system. Describe in detail which moon has the younger surface and WHY. 4. The Big Bang theory of Cosmology is accepted by nearly all astronomers. list, and describe, three major observations that support this theory. 5. is the what attribute of the planets of the outer solar system made them grow so much larger than the Terrestrial Planets? 6. Why is Europa, a moon of Jupiter considered a prime candidate for finding extraterrestrial life, what are the conditions that allow this? 7. Describe one topic in this course that  you found particularly interesting  and why (do not use what you led discussions on). 8.

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